There are situations when you need to hang a picture on a wall without nails, stud finder and drilling. For example, an apartment is removable, you do not want to spoil the wall with holes, disturb your neighbors or just your husband is not at home. It is then that very simple and effective ways come to our aid, which will help to hang a picture, a panel, a poster or a photo on the wall without using a drill. If you prefer classic method with drilling a wall, I recommend buy special tool – stud finder. But before read stud finder reviews to make the best choose. Choose which one non standard method you like best!
In the building shop, you can buy a special device called a “spider hook”: it has four pointed ends that are well attached to the wall with a hammer and leave no traces on it. This hook reliably holds on any wall, it can hang a picture or frame up to 2 kg.
Another way to place light pictures is to stitch a sewing needle into the wall. For example, you can gently at an angle to drive into the wallpaper a tailor’s pin with a head. Another option: to break off the needle with a pair of pliers and a sharp end just to drive into the wall. Thus, the hole in the wall turns out to be small and inconspicuous, unlike nails or screws. At the same time, the needle itself, steel and strong, hold the frame securely.
Energy-efficient houses are being built in European countries for a long time, but for our country, such a dwelling is still exotic.
It is not surprising that many developers are suspicious of the construction of such buildings, considering it an unjustified waste of money.
An energy-efficient (energy-passive) house is a structure in which the costs associated with energy consumption are, on average, 30% less than in an ordinary house. Energy efficiency at home until recently could be determined by the coefficient of seasonal use of thermal energy – E.
E <= 110 kWh / m2 / year is a normal house. E <= 70 kWh / m2 / year – energy efficient house. E <= 15 kWh / m2 / year – passive house.
When calculating the coefficient E, the ratio of the area of all external surfaces to the total cubic capacity of the house, the thickness of the thermal insulation layer in the walls, the roof and the floors of the house, the glazing area and the number of people living in the building are taken into account.
In Europe, to determine the energy efficiency class of the house, the EP coefficient is used, which determines the amount of electricity spent for heating, hot water, lighting, ventilation and the operation of household electrical appliances.
The starting point is taken by EP = 1 and the energy class D, i.e. standard. The modern classification of houses, adopted in European countries, looks like this:
ЕР <= 0,25 – class A, passive house; 0.26 <EP <= 0.50 – class B, economical house; 0,51 <ЕР <= 0,75 – class C, energy-saving house; 0.75 <EP <= 1 – class D, standard house; 1,01 <EP <= 1.25 – class E; 1.26 <EP <= 1.50 – class F; ЕР> 1,51 – class G, the most energy-consuming house.
In an ordinary, not sufficiently insulated, house with large heat losses through the enclosing structures, most of the energy (up to 70%) goes to heating.
You can say that the owners of this house heat the street.
Therefore, in European countries, no one is surprised at the thickness of the insulation in the walls of 300-400 mm, and the contour of the building itself is made airtight.
But before buying cubic meters of insulation, it is necessary to understand when additional insulation and the whole complex of measures related to the construction of an energy efficient house are economically justified.
Energy efficiency in figures
In northern Canada, the heating season lasts for an average of 7-8 months, and the climate is more severe than in Europe. Because of this, a lot of controversy arises about whether it is profitable to build an energy-efficient house in our country? One of the most frequent statements of opponents of energy-efficient construction is the argument that in our country the construction of such a house is very expensive, and the cost of its erection will never pay off. Is it really?
Speaking about solar energy, first of all, it is necessary to mention that it is a renewable energy source, unlike fossil fuels – coal, oil, gas, which are not being restored. According to NASA, about 6.5 billion years ago, the inhabitants of the Earth have nothing to worry about – about as much as the Sun will warm our planet with its rays until it explodes.
The potential of solar energy is zenormous – the surface of the Earth is irradiated with 120 thousand terawatts of sunlight, which is 20 thousand times higher than the world demand for it.
In addition, the solar energy is inexhaustible and constant – it can not be overpaid in the process of meeting the needs of mankind in energy carriers, so that it will be enough in abundance and for the share of future generations.
In addition to other advantages of solar energy, it is available at every point of the world – not only in the equatorial zone of the Earth, but also in the northern latitudes. For example, Germany currently occupies the first place in the world for the use of solar energy and has its maximum potential.
5. Ecological cleanliness
In light of the latest trends in the struggle for the ecological purity of the Earth, solar energy is the most promising sector, which partially replaces the energy received from non-renewable fuel resources and, thus, is a fundamental step towards protecting the climate from global warming. The production, transportation, installation and use of solar power plants is practically not accompanied by harmful emissions into the atmosphere. Even if they are present in a small amount, then compared to traditional sources of energy – this is almost zero impact on the environment.
Due to the fact that in systems on the solar resource there are no moving nodes, as, for example, in generators, the generation of electricity is noiseless.
7. Efficiency, low operating costs
Moving to solar panels as an autonomous energy source, owners of frequent houses receive tangible savings. It is also important that maintenance of solar-powered power systems is characterized by low costs – it is only necessary to clean solar cells several times a year, and the manufacturer’s warranty on them is usually 20-25 years.
8. Extensive field of application
Solar energy has a wide range of applications – it is the generation of electricity in regions where there is no connection to a centralized power supply system, and desalination of water in Africa, and even the supply of energy to satellites in near-earth orbit. Not in vain, solar energy is recently called “people’s” – this name reflects the simplicity of its integration into the electricity supply system at home, both in the case of photovoltaic and thermal elements.
9. Innovative technologies
Every year, technologies in the production of solar cells are becoming more sophisticated – thin-film modules are introduced directly into the building materials during the construction stage. Japanese concern Sharp – the leader in the production of solar panels, recently introduced an innovative system of transparent storage elements for window glazing. Modern achievements in the field of nanotechnology and quantum physics allow us to talk about a possible increase in the power of solar panels in 3 times.
1. High cost
There is an opinion that solar energy belongs to the category of an expensive resource – this is perhaps the most contentious issue of all the positive and negative aspects of its use. Due to the fact that the arrangement of the house with solar storage elements costs a considerable amount at the initial stage.
Due to the fact that sunlight is not available at night, as well as on cloudy and rainy days, solar energy can not be the main source of electricity. But, in comparison with wind turbines, this, after all, is a more stable option.
3. High cost of energy storage
Batteries that allow you to accumulate energy and smooth, to some extent, the instability of solar energy supply, is distinguished by a high price that is not available to every homeowner. Simplifies the situation by the fact that the peak of electricity consumption is exactly at daylight hours.
4. Minor pollution of the environment
Despite the fact that compared to the production and processing of other types of energy resources, solar energy is most friendly to the natural environment, some technological processes for manufacturing solar panels are accompanied by the emission of greenhouse gases, nitrogen trifluoride and sulfur hexafluoride.
5. The use of expensive and rare components
The release of thin-film solar panels requires the introduction of cadmium telluride (CdTe) or indium gallium selenide (CIGS), which are rare and expensive – this entails a rise in the cost of alternative energy supply in general.
6. Low power density
One of the important parameters of the electric power source is the average power density, measured in W / m2 and characterizing the amount of energy that can be obtained from a unit of energy source area. This figure for solar radiation is 170 W / m2 – this is more than other renewable natural resources, but lower than oil, gas, coal and nuclear power. For this reason, to generate 1 kW of electricity from solar heat requires a large area of solar panels.